msgr3en.dll

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String Table

10 Options Version
11 Option Set %d
12 Name
13 Data
16 Counts
17 Words
18 Characters
19 Paragraphs
20 Sentences
21 Averages
22 Sentences per Paragraph
23 Words per Sentence
24 Characters per Word
25 Readability
26 Passive Sentences
27 Flesch Reading Ease
28 Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level
30 Passive sentences
31 Spaces required between sentences:
32 Comma required before last list item:
33 Punctuation required with quotes:
38 Contractions
39 Delete {%s}
40 %s (consider revising)
41 (undefined)
43 don't check
44 on
45 off
46 inside
47 outside
48 always
49 never
64 Require
65 Grammar:
66 Style:
80 Software\Microsoft\Shared Tools\Proofing Tools\Grammar\MSGrammar\3.0\%lu
4000

"†Instead of:
4001
"†Consider:
4002
"†Or consider:
5032 A title is capitalized if followed by a proper name.
5033 Marie likes to read about {ul}queen{ul 0} Victoria.
5034 Marie likes to read about Queen Victoria.
5035 Have you met {ul}general{ul 0} Adams yet?
5036 Have you met General Adams yet?
5048 Capitalization
5064 Some words are always capitalized. Other words are capitalized when they are part of a title, a name, or a place.
5065 We saw the mountains by Lake {ul}chelan{ul 0}.
5066 We saw the mountains by Lake Chelan.
5067 She swims in {ul}lake michigan{ul 0} in winter.
5068 She swims in Lake Michigan in winter.
5080 Capitalization
5096 Capitalize the marked word if it is part of the name of a place.
5097 Her apartment has a lovely view of {ul}glacier mountain{ul 0}.
5098 Her apartment has a lovely view of Glacier Mountain.
5099 The conference was at Spirit {ul}lake{ul 0}.
5100 The conference was at Spirit Lake.
5112 Capitalization
5128 It is incorrect to capitalize the seasons of the year or the academic years (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior).
5129 Laura's {ul}Junior{ul 0} year in college was her most challenging.
5130 Laura's junior year in college was her most challenging.
5131 In {ul}Summer{ul 0}, she worked in the hospital.
5132 In summer, she worked in the hospital.
5144 Capitalization
5160 Capitalize all months of the year.
5161 Julie loves {ul}march{ul 0} when the lambs are born.
5162 Julie loves March when the lambs are born.
5163 Quarterly reports are due on {ul}may{ul 0} 14.
5164 Quarterly reports are due on May 14.
5176 Capitalization
5192 Some words are always capitalized. Other words are capitalized when they are part of a title, a name, or a place. A minor word such as "the" is capitalized
5193 only when the word begins a sentence or officially begins a name.
5194 The pet store closes on Valentine's {ul}day{ul 0}.
5195 The pet store closes on Valentine's Day.
5196 Mary has a map of {ul}the{ul 0} Hague.
5197 Mary has a map of The Hague.
5208 Capitalization
5224 "Fiancé" is used for a man engaged to be married. "Fiancée" is used for a woman engaged to be married.
5225 Karen is his {ul}fiancé{ul 0}.
5226 Karen is his fiancée.
5227 Jack is her {ul}fiancée{ul 0}.
5228 Jack is her fiancé.
5240 Commonly Confused Words
5256 "Poll" means a survey or number of votes cast or recorded. "Pole" means a piece of wood or refers to the axis of the earth.
5257 The agency conducted a {ul}pole{ul 0} yesterday.
5258 The agency conducted a poll yesterday.
5259 Does she have the results of the opinion {ul}pole{ul 0}?
5260 Does she have the results of the opinion poll?
5272 Commonly Confused Words
5288 "Hole" means an opening or a flaw. "Whole" means "complete."
5289 The orchestra did not play the {ul}hole{ul 0} concerto.
5290 The orchestra did not play the whole concerto.
5304 Commonly Confused Words
5320 "Gorilla" means a type of animal. "Guerrilla" means a type of military force.
5321 Did they use {ul}gorilla{ul 0} tactics?
5322 Did they use guerrilla tactics?
5323 Instruct the {ul}gorilla{ul 0} soldiers on what to wear.
5324 Instruct the guerrilla soldiers on what to wear.
5336 Commonly Confused Words
5352 "An" is used before a noun: "an apple." "And" connects words or phrases, such as "an apple and an orange."
5353 Did they give you a table {ul}an{ul 0} chairs?
5354 Did they give you a table and chairs?
5355 The concierge {ul}an{ul 0} I had a long discussion.
5356 The concierge and I had a long discussion.
5368 Commonly Confused Words
5384 "Specially" means "for a particular purpose." "Especially" modifies verbs, adjectives, or adverbs and
5385 means "particularly" or "very much."
5386 Are you {ul}specially{ul 0} fond of figs?
5387 Are you especially fond of figs?
5388 Give the master of ceremonies a {ul}specially{ul 0} big round of applause.
5389 Give the master of ceremonies an especially big round of applause.
5400 Commonly Confused Words
5416 "Besides" means "in addition to" or "other than." "Beside" means "along the side of."
5417 {ul}Beside{ul 0} moving the couch, we are rearranging the office.
5418 Besides moving the couch, we are rearranging the office.
5419 What do you do for exercise, {ul}beside{ul 0} running?
5420 What do you do for exercise, besides running?
5432 Commonly Confused Words
5448 "Beside" is used before reflexive pronouns such as "himself" or "themselves" to mean a state of great excitement. "Beside" is also used
5449 in the expression "beside the point" to mean "not relevant to."
5450 Is he {ul}besides{ul 0} himself about winning the lottery?
5451 Is he beside himself about winning the lottery?
5452 That suggestion was {ul}besides{ul 0} the point.
5453 That suggestion was beside the point.
5464 Commonly Confused Words
5480 "Renown" is used as a noun. "Renowned" is used as an adjective.
5481  She was a {ul}renown{ul 0} scientist.
5482  She was a renowned scientist.
5483 The {ul}renown{ul 0} pianist is now very old.
5484 The renowned pianist is now very old.
5496 Commonly Confused Words
5512 Generally, "averse" is used with the preposition "to" to mean "a feeling of dislike." "Adverse," an adjective, means some sort of difficulty.
5513 He was not {ul}adverse{ul 0} to cooking every other night.
5514 He was not averse to cooking every other night.
5515 Being {ul}adverse{ul 0} to asking is no way to make progress.
5516 Being averse to asking is no way to make progress.
5528 Commonly Confused Words
5544 "Rend," a verb, is used to suggest violence or distress. "Render," a verb, is used to suggest giving, yielding, or becoming.
5545 She told a {ul}heart-rendering{ul 0} story!
5546 She told a heart-rending story!
5547 Give me the book voluntarily, or I will {ul}render{ul 0} it from you.
5548 Give me the book voluntarily, or I will rend it from you.
5560 Commonly Confused Words
5576 "Emigrate" is used with the preposition "from" to mean departure from a country or region. "Immigrate" is used with the preposition
5577 "to" or "into" to mean entrance into a country or region.
5578 The family did not {ul}emigrate{ul 0} to Germany.
5579 The family did not immigrate to Germany.
5580 The children {ul}immigrated{ul 0} from New Zealand.
5581 The children emigrated from New Zealand.
5592 Commonly Confused Words
5608 "Learn" means "acquiring knowledge." "Teach" means "transmitting knowledge."
5609 Have you {ul}learned{ul 0} him how to ride a bike?
5610 Have you taught him how to ride a bike?
5611 Please {ul}learn{ul 0} your class the rules.
5612 Please teach your class the rules.
5624 Commonly Confused Words
5640 Check the meaning of the marked word to be sure you are using the word correctly. Words that sound alike are often confused with one another.
5641 Her {ul}browse{ul 0} are deeply furrowed when she is angry.
5642 Her brows are deeply furrowed when she is angry.
5643 Her {ul}feat{ul 0} were so large it was hard to find shoes that fit her.
5644 Her feet were so large it was hard to find shoes that fit her.
5656 Commonly Confused Words
5672 Check the meaning of the marked word to be sure you are using the word correctly. Words that sound alike are often confused with one another.
5673 I do not {ul}mined{ul 0} helping her.
5674 I do not mind helping her.
5675 I cannot {ul}fined{ul 0} my friend.
5676 I cannot find my friend.
5688 Commonly Confused Words
5704 Check the meaning of the marked word to be sure you are using the word correctly. Words that sound alike are often confused with one another.
5705 Try to {ul}fined{ul 0} her an acceptable pair of jeans.
5706 Try to find her an acceptable pair of jeans.
5707 We have to {ul}fined{ul 0} him before it is too late.
5708 We have to find him before it is too late.
5720 Commonly Confused Words
5736 Check the meaning of the marked word to be sure you are using the word correctly. Words that sound alike are often confused with one another.
5737 The superintendent took a quick {ul}brows{ul 0} through the school.
5738 The superintendent took a quick browse through the school.
5739 It was a {ul}laps{ul 0} of judgment.
5740 It was a lapse of judgment.
5752 Commonly Confused Words
5768 Check the meaning of the marked word to be sure you are using the word correctly. Words that sound alike are often confused with one another. For additional examples,
5769 consult the Help menu under "commonly confused."
5770 {ul}Its{ul 0} a long way to the station.
5771 It's a long way to the station.
5772 The cat drank {ul}it's{ul 0} milk.
5773 The cat drank its milk.
5774 {ul}Your{ul 0} going to like this.
5775 You're going to like this.
5776 {ul}Your{ul 0} improving every day.
5777 You're improving every day.
5784 Commonly Confused Words
5800 "To" is used as a preposition. "Too" is used as an adverb to mean "also" or "excessively."
5801 There was {ul}to{ul 0} much salt in the sauce.
5802 There was too much salt in the sauce.
5803 She is not {ul}to{ul 0} concerned about the transfer.
5804 She is not too concerned about the transfer.
5816 Commonly Confused Words
5832 Spelled-out numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine are hyphenated.
5833 {ul}Thirty five{ul 0} people attended the family reunion.
5834 Thirty-five people attended the family reunion.
5835 They waited for over {ul}forty five{ul 0} minutes.
5836 They waited for over forty-five minutes.
5848 Hyphen Use
5864 "Half" and any word "half" modifies are hyphenated.
5865 The students are {ul}half asleep{ul 0}.
5866 The students are half-asleep.
5867 Roger gave the {ul}half finished{ul 0} proposal an extension.
5868 Roger gave the half-finished proposal an extension.
5880 Hyphen Use
5896 A number and its unit of measurement are hyphenated if they modify another noun.
5897 Her {ul}three year old{ul 0} daughter is afraid of cats.
5898 Her three-year-old daughter is afraid of cats.
5899 Who won the {ul}100 yard{ul 0} dash?
5900 Who won the 100-yard dash?
5912 Hyphen Use
5928 Some pairs of words that work closely together are hyphenated to emphasize their relationship with each other.
5929 The boy was proud of his {ul}prize winning{ul 0} frog.
5930 The boy was proud of his prize-winning frog.
5931 They bought a {ul}power monitoring{ul 0} device.
5932 They bought a power-monitoring device.
5944 Hyphen Use
5960 Some pairs of words that work closely together are hyphenated to emphasize their relationship with each other.
5961 She was their {ul}quasi elected{ul 0} band leader.
5962 She was their quasi-elected band leader.
5963 We have many {ul}cross referenced{ul 0} documents.
5964 We have many cross-referenced documents.
5976 Hyphen Use
5992 Some pairs of words that work closely together are hyphenated to emphasize their relationship with each other.
5993 The {ul}ever faithful{ul 0} dog stayed with the lost child.
5994 The ever-faithful dog stayed with the lost child.
5995 The {ul}much loved{ul 0} collie lived 13 years.
5996 The much-loved collie lived 13 years.
6008 Hyphen Use
6024 Some pairs of words that work closely together are hyphenated to emphasize their relationship with each other.
6025 This car has a {ul}diesel powered{ul 0} engine.
6026 This car has a diesel-powered engine.
6027 The car has a {ul}battery powered{ul 0} stereo.
6028 The car has a battery-powered stereo.
6040 Hyphen Use
6056 For standard spelling, some pairs of words work sensibly together simply by being next to each other. These pairs do not need a hyphen to emphasize their relationship nor should
6057 be combined into one word.
6058 Roger has a {ul}highly-developed{ul 0} taste for fine cheeses.
6059 Roger has a highly developed taste for fine cheeses.
6060 If you have {ul}anymore{ul 0} questions, call the ombudsman.
6061 If you have any more questions, call the ombudsman.
6072 Compound Words
6088 You may be using too many hyphens or using hyphens in the wrong place. Hyphens are not used with numbers above 99. Hyphens are used only once with fractions.
6089 The lottery paid Janice {ul}fifty-four-million{ul 0} dollars.
6090 The lottery paid Janice fifty-four million dollars.
6091 {ul}Twenty-fifty-thirds{ul 0} of a mile is an odd distance for a race.
6092 Twenty fifty-thirds of a mile is an odd distance for a race.
6104 Hyphen Use
6120 For standard spelling, some pairs of words need a hyphen to emphasize their relationship. Other pairs need to be combined into one word. Still others work sensibly
6121 together simply by being next to each other.
6122 His attitude was {ul}open minded{ul 0}.
6123 His attitude was open-minded.
6124 Paul had a severe {ul}stomach ache{ul 0}.
6125 Paul had a severe stomachache.
6126 The {ul}lieutenant-governor{ul 0} was the speaker.
6127 The lieutenant governor was the speaker.
6136 Compound Words
6152 In the phrase "every one of," "every" and "one" are separated.
6153 {ul}Everyone{ul 0} of the Jones boys has red hair.
6154 Every one of the Jones boys has red hair.
6155 {ul}Everyone{ul 0} of the students passed the test.
6156 Every one of the students passed the test.
6168 Every One Of
6184 Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs, as in "strongly spoken" and "smoothly thrown." Adjectives modify nouns and
6185 pronouns, as in "strong man" and "smooth stone."
6186 The technician will work {ul}quick{ul 0}.
6187 The technician will work quickly.
6188 She did {ul}good{ul 0} in the race.
6189 She did well in the race.
6200 Adjective/Adverb Use
6216 The marked word can be used correctly only after a noun. However, in some cases, the form of the word may be changed, leaving the word in its original place
6217 The {ul}sunk{ul 0} ship was full of treasure.
6218 The sunken ship was full of treasure.
6219 The {ul}asleep{ul 0} baby did not wake at the noise.
6220 The baby, who was asleep, did not wake at the noise.
6232 Adjective Use
6248 Certain adjectives can only be used before a noun. However, in some cases, the form of the adjective may be changed, leaving it in its original place.
6249 That attraction is {ul}main{ul 0}.
6250 That is the main attraction.
6251 They were {ul}drunken{ul 0}.
6252 They were drunk.
6264 Adjective Use
6280 When comparing with a one-syllable adjective, add "-er" or "-est" to the end of the adjective. Do not use "more" or "most." When comparing with a
6281 two-syllable adjective, add "-er" or "-est" or use the word "more" or "most" in addition to the adjective. Do not use both options at the same time.
6282 This star is {ul}more bright{ul 0}.
6283 This star is brighter.
6284 She has the {ul}most good{ul 0} grades in the class.
6285 She has the best grades in the class.
6296 Comparative Use
6312 When comparing two things with a one-syllable adjective, add "-er" to the end of the adjective. Do not use "more." When comparing with a two-syllable
6313 adjective, add "-er" or use the word "more" in addition to the adjective. Do not use both options at the same time.
6314 Tomorrow we will meet {ul}more longer{ul 0} hours.
6315 Tomorrow we will meet longer hours.
6316 The new chef created {ul}more tastier{ul 0} pastries.
6317 The new chef created tastier pastries.
6328 Comparative Use
6344 When comparing with a two-syllable adjective, add "-er" or "-est" to the end of the adjective or use the word "more," "most," "less," or "least" in
6345 addition to the adjective. Do not use both options at the same time. When comparing with an adjective with more than two syllables, use the words
6346 "more," "most," "less," or "least." Do not add "-er" or "-est."
6347 This business has the {ul}more happier{ul 0} customers.
6348 This business has the happier customers.
6349 This chair is the least {ul}comfortablest{ul 0}.
6350 This chair is the least comfortable.
6360 Comparative Use
6376 To compare two things, add "-er" to the end of an adjective or use the word "more" in addition to the adjective.
6377 To compare three or more things, add "-est" or use the word "most."
6378 That runner is the {ul}faster{ul 0} of them all.
6379 That runner is the fastest of them all.
6380 The trombone was the {ul}best{ul 0} of the two instruments.
6381 The trombone was the better of the two instruments.
6382 The winter was the {ul}more{ul 0} severe of the three.
6383 The winter was the most severe of the three.
6392 Comparative Use
6408 Consider using the full form ("she is") rather than the contraction ("she's") when you are comparing.
6409 Catherine is faster than {ul}you're{ul 0}.
6410 Catherine is faster than you are.
6411 Michele has more scruples than {ul}he's{ul 0}.
6412 Michele has more scruples than he has.
6424 Contraction Use
6440 Use the singular form of a unit of measure, such as "inch," "pound," or "gallon," if a specific number modifies that unit of measure.
6441 The {ul}twenty-feet{ul 0} giant ate ten steaks every day.
6442 The twenty-foot giant ate ten steaks every day.
6443 The {ul}six-gallons{ul 0} jug of water was heavy.
6444 The six-gallon jug of water was heavy.
6456 Unit of Measure
6504 Some words work together in pairs, such as "both/and," "either/or," and "neither/nor." It is incorrect to interchange the parts of these different pairs.
6505 You may have {ul}both candy or{ul 0} ice cream.
6506 You may have both candy and ice cream.
6507 You may have either candy or ice cream.
6508 The winter was {ul}neither cold or{ul 0} snowy.
6509 The winter was neither cold nor snowy.
6510 The winter was either cold or snowy.
6520 Conjunction Use
6536 Some words work together in pairs. Use "but also" with the conjunction "not only." "But" by itself is incorrect when paired with
6537 "not only."
6538 The child lost not only his coat {ul}but{ul 0} his boots.
6539 The child lost not only his coat but also his boots.
6540 Ice hockey is not only an exciting {ul}but{ul 0} a dangerous sport.
6541 Ice hockey is not only an exciting but also a dangerous sport.
6552 Conjunction Use
6568 When using word pairs such as "either/or," or "both/and," place each part of the pair in similar positions within your sentence. For example, if "either" comes
6569 just before a noun, "or" should come just before a noun.
6570 He competed {ul}both in freestyle and backstroke{ul 0}.
6571 He competed in both freestyle and backstroke.
6572 He competed both in freestyle and in backstroke.
6573 She called me {ul}either on Friday or Saturday{ul 0}.
6574 She called me on either Friday or Saturday.
6575 She called me either on Friday or on Saturday.
6584 Order of Words
6600 Use "when" with "hardly" or "scarcely." It is incorrect to use "than."
6601 Our plane had scarcely landed {ul}than{ul 0} they closed the airport.
6602 Our plane had scarcely landed when they closed the airport.
6603 The guests had scarcely arrived {ul}than{ul 0} it started to rain.
6604 The guests had scarcely arrived when it started to rain.
6616 Conjunction Use
6632 Use "than" with "no sooner." It is incorrect to use "when."
6633 We had no sooner gotten home {ul}when{ul 0} it started to rain.
6634 We had no sooner gotten home than it started to rain.
6635 No sooner had I fixed one leak {ul}when{ul 0} another leak started.
6636 No sooner had I fixed one leak than another leak started.
6648 Conjunction Use
6664 Use "like" alone as a conjunction only in informal writing.
6665 He threw a tantrum {ul}like{ul 0} he said he would.
6666 He threw a tantrum as he said he would.
6667 I want a garden {ul}like{ul 0} she has.
6668 I want a garden like the one she has.
6680 Use of "Like"
6696 If your sentence can be interpreted in more than one way, consider inserting "that" within the marked group of words to clarify the meaning.
6697 He will {ul}announce today the bus will be late{ul 0}.
6698 He will announce today that the bus will be late.
6699 He will announce that today the bus will be late.
6700 He {ul}thought under no circumstances his dog could pass obedience school{ul 0}.
6701 He thought that under no circumstances his dog could not pass obedience school.
6712 Missing "That"
6728 Generally, use "nor" rather than "or" in the second part of your sentence when you have used negative words such as "not" or "never"
6729 in the first part of your sentence.
6730 The airline did not lose the bags, {ul}or{ul 0} did they damage them.
6731 The airline did not lose the bags, nor did they damage them.
6732 He never learned to swim, {ul}or{ul 0} did he want to.
6733 He never learned to swim, nor did he want to.
6744 "Or" or "Nor"
6760 Some words work together in pairs, such as "neither...nor," "not...or," and "no...or." It is incorrect to interchange the parts of these pairs. If "nor" is
6761 used by itself in the second part of your sentence, be sure the first part of your sentence contains a negative verb. In this case, "not" is paired with "nor"
6762 because "not" is a part of the verb phrase.
6763 He is {ul}not a teacher nor{ul 0} a student.
6764 He is neither a teacher nor a student.
6765 He is not a teacher or a student.
6766 He did {ul}want{ul 0} to quit the team, nor did anyone expect him to quit.
6767 He did not want to quit the team, nor did anyone expect him to quit.
6776 "Or" or "Nor"
6792 If you are using "between" to associate two items, join the two items with "and," as in "between a rock and a hard place." It is incorrect to use "or."
6793 To find the driveway, look between the hedge {ul}or{ul 0} the mailboxes.
6794 To find the driveway, look between the hedge and the mailboxes.
6795 She found her purse between her jacket {ul}or{ul 0} the telephone.
6796 She found her purse between her jacket and the telephone.
6808 Use of "Between"
6824 If you are comparing one item to another, "different from" is preferable to "different than."
6825 Her dress is different {ul}than{ul 0} my mother's dress.
6826 Her dress is different from my mother's dress.
6827 My idea is different {ul}than{ul 0} your idea.
6828 My idea is different from your idea.
6840 Use of "Different From"
6856 Although a preposition at the end of a sentence may be used informally, consider deleting or repositioning the preposition for a more formal or traditional tone
6857 I do not know what this tool is {ul}for{ul 0}.
6858 I do not know what this tool is.
6859 What ingredients did he cook {ul}with{ul 0}?
6860 With what ingredients did he cook?
6872 End-of-Sentence Preposition
6888 Although a preposition at the end of a sentence may be used informally, consider deleting the preposition for a more formal or traditional tone.
6889 Where are you {ul}flying to{ul 0}?
6890 Where are you flying?
6891 Please ask where the school {ul}is at{ul 0}.
6892 Please ask where the school is.
6904 Extra Word
6920 Although "buy off" may be used informally, substitute "buy from" for a more formal or traditional tone.
6921 Buying something {ul}off{ul 0} a stranger in the street is not wise.
6922 Buying something from a stranger in the street is not wise.
6923 Be careful not to buy that {ul}off{ul 0} someone dishonest.
6924 Be careful not to buy that from someone dishonest.
6936 Preposition Use
6952 Although "under" may be used informally when you mean "less than" or "fewer than," consider using "less than" or "fewer than"
6953 for a more formal or traditional tone.
6954 Please buy {ul}under{ul 0} 35 pounds of cherries.
6955 Please buy less than 35 pounds of cherries.
6956 We will hire {ul}under{ul 0} 60 employees.
6957 We will hire fewer than 60 employees.
6968 Preposition Use
6984 Although "prefer X over Y" or "prefer X more than Y" may be used informally, substitute "prefer X to Y" for a more formal or traditional tone.
6985 The teacher prefers one student {ul}over{ul 0} the other.
6986 The teacher prefers one student to the other.
6987 Mary prefers kiwis {ul}more than{ul 0} mangos.
6988 Mary prefers kiwis to mangos.
7000 Preposition Use
7016 Use "angry with" for human beings. Use "angry at" or "angry about" for any non-human object.
7017 Anna was angry {ul}at{ul 0} Mary for losing the keys.
7018 Anna was angry with Mary for losing the keys.
7019 Paul was angry {ul}with{ul 0} his dogs for ripping up his newspaper.
7020 Paul was angry at his dogs for ripping up his newspaper.
7032 Preposition Use
7048 Some words work together in pairs: "inferior to," "superior to," "authority on," "comply with," "centers on," "conform to," "object to,"
7049 and "opposite of." It is incorrect to interchange the parts of these pairs.
7050 This product is inferior {ul}than{ul 0} the other one.
7051 This product is inferior to the other one.
7052 This report centers {ul}around{ul 0} the southwest regional sales.
7053 This report centers on the southwest regional sales.
7054 Who is an authority {ul}about{ul 0} poodles?
7055 Who is an authority on poodles?
7056 The candidate tried to comply {ul}to{ul 0} the election regulations.
7057 The candidate tried to comply with the election regulations.
7064 Preposition Use
7080 If the marked pronoun comes immediately before a group of words introduced by "that," "which," "what," "who," or "whom," the form of the
7081 pronoun needs to reflect its function in relation to that group of words.
7082 It was not {ul}they{ul 0} that the class wanted to visit.
7083 It was not them that the class wanted to visit.
7084 It was {ul}she{ul 0} whom we elected.
7085 It was her whom we elected.
7096 Pronoun Use
7112 If the marked pronoun refers back to a subject in your sentence, use the nominative case: "I," "you," "he," "she," "it," "we," or "they."
7113 The winning team is likely to be {ul}they{ul 0}.
7114 The winning team is likely to be them.
7115 Anna would never want to be {ul}she{ul 0}.
7116 Anna would never want to be her.
7128 Pronoun Use
7144 For clarity when comparing with "than" or "as," consider adding the implied verb to your sentence. If you are using a pronoun, the form
7145 of your pronoun will also need to change.
7146 Can you tell that he is shorter than {ul}her{ul 0}?
7147 Can you tell that he is shorter than she is?
7148 In fourth grade, the twins talk more than any other children{ul}.{ul 0}
7149 In fourth grade, the twins talk more than any other children do.
7160 Comparisons
7176 Use "who" or "whoever" as a subject in a sentence. Use "whom" or "whomever" as an object or after a preposition.
7177 {ul}Whom{ul 0} reads the magazine?
7178 Who reads the magazine?
7179 Tell it to {ul}whomever{ul 0} lost the book.
7180 Tell it to whoever lost the book.
7192 "Who" or "Whom"
7208 Use pronouns ending in "self" in conjunction with a noun, as in "Andrew himself" or when the pronoun refers back to the subject, as in "I hit myself."
7209 Use "own" in conjunction with a pronoun only when referring back to the subject.
7210 They heard {ul}herself{ul 0} on the radio.
7211 They heard her on the radio.
7212 John watched {ul}her own{ul 0} meal get cold.
7213 John watched her meal get cold.
7224 Reflexive Pronoun Use
7240 "They," "them," and "their" must refer to a plural noun or pronoun.
7241 {ul}Each student has their{ul 0} own notebook.
7242 Each student has his or her own notebook.
7243 Students have their own notebook.
7244 If anybody is coming, {ul}they{ul 0} should come now.
7245 If anybody is coming, he or she should come now.
7256 Pronoun Use
7272 If you are connecting "I," "we," me," or "us" with a noun or another pronoun, place "I," "we," me," or "us" last.
7273 {ul}I and the student{ul 0} have an appointment.
7274 The student and I have an appointment.
7275 Is the dinner for {ul}me and you{ul 0}?
7276 Is the dinner for you and me?
7288 Order of Words
7304 Although "same" may be used informally as a pronoun to refer to a noun, replace "same" with "it" for a more formal or traditional tone.
7305 After you have completed the questionnaire, please mail {ul}same{ul 0}.
7306 After you have completed the questionnaire, please mail it.
7307 Did you seal the package and address {ul}same{ul 0}?
7308 Did you seal the package and address it?
7320 Use of "Same"
7336 Expressing a negative sentiment in two different ways in one sentence, as in "I did not do nothing," may make a sentence unclear. For clarity, consider replacing
7337 one of the negatives with a positive. "Hardly" and "scarcely" should not be paired with another negative word.
7338 I did not do {ul}nothing{ul 0} to make the situation worse.
7339 I did not do anything to make the situation worse.
7340 She could {ul}not hardly{ul 0} stand the winters.
7341 She could hardly stand the winters.
7342 She could not stand the winters.
7352 Negation Use
7368 Generally, spell out any number that begins a sentence. In addition, spell out any number below 10 in any part of your sentence if the number is not attached to a
7369 measurement or label.
7370 {ul}14{ul 0} people registered for the class.
7371 Fourteen people registered for the class.
7372 There were only {ul}9{ul 0} students in the entire school.
7373 There were only nine students in the entire school.
7384 Spell Out Number
7400 Use simple numbers for dates, for numbers after labels (Chapter 5), and for numbers in a list (12 lemons, 5 apples, and 2 bananas).
7401 The next seminar will be held on June {ul}fourteen{ul 0}.
7402 The next seminar will be held on June 14.
7403 We drove across the country on Highway {ul}two{ul 0}.
7404 We drove across the country on Highway 2.
7416 Numbers
7432 Generally, spell out "percentage" rather than use the symbol.
7433 They donate a large {ul}%{ul 0} of the profit to charity.
7434 They donate a large percentage of the profit to charity.
7435 What {ul}%{ul 0} of your homework have you completed?
7436 What percentage of your homework have you completed?
7448 Percentage Sign
7464 For a livelier and more persuasive sentence, consider rewriting your sentence using an active verb (the subject performs the action, as in
7465 "The ball hit Catherine") rather than a passive verb (the subject receives the action, as in "Catherine was hit by the ball"). If you
7466 rewrite with an active verb, consider what the appropriate subject is - "they," "we," or a more specific noun or pronoun.
7467 {ul}Juanita was delighted by Michelle{ul 0}.
7468 Michelle delighted Juanita.
7469 Eric {ul}was given{ul 0} more work.
7470 The boss gave Eric more work.
7471 The garbage needs to {ul}be taken out{ul 0}.
7472 You need to take the garbage out.
7480 Passive Voice
7496 Use "a" before a word beginning with a consonant or the sound of a consonant. Use "an" before a word beginning with a vowel or the sound
7497 of a vowel. For abbreviations, use either "a" or "an" depending on the pronunciation of the first letter in the abbreviation, such as "an LMN" or "a UVW."
7498 This is {ul}an{ul 0} problem.
7499 This is a problem.
7500 {ul}An{ul 0} tear slowly ran down her face.
7501 A tear slowly ran down her face.
7512 "A" or "An"
7528 Use "either" and "neither" to refer to a choice between two items. Use "any" to refer to one of several items. Use "both" to refer
7529 to only two items. Use "two" rather than "both" to refer to two items out of three or more.
7530 I was allergic to {ul}both{ul 0} of the three species.
7531 I was allergic to two of the three species.
7532 Please give me {ul}either{ul 0} of the four desserts.
7533 Please give me any of the four desserts.
7544 Number Agreement
7560 Use "either" and "neither" to indicate a choice between two items. Use "both" to indicate two items. Use "neither...nor" to compare two items.
7561 Did you {ul}know either{ul 0} Larry, Curly, or Moe?
7562 Did you know Larry, Curly, or Moe?
7563 {ul}Both Jane{ul 0}, Sue, and Jenny came over last night.
7564 Jane, Sue, and Jenny came over last night.
7565 He likes {ul}neither school, sports, nor his job{ul 0}.
7566 He does not like school, sports, or his job.
7576 "Both," "Either," "Neither"
7592 If you are using a noun that cannot be counted or divided, such as "oil," "happiness," and "furniture," it is incorrect to modify that
7593 noun with "a," "each," "every," "either," or "neither."
7594 Do you have {ul}a knowledge{ul 0} of Greek?
7595 Do you have knowledge of Greek?
7596 The toddlers liked to move {ul}a furniture{ul 0}.
7597 The toddlers liked to move furniture.
7608 Number Agreement
7624 A noun and the words that modify that noun must agree in number.
7625 You may buy {ul}this{ul 0} four product.
7626 You may buy these four products.
7627 She will climb {ul}these{ul 0} one mountains.
7628 She will climb this one mountain.
7640 Number Agreement
7656 A noun and the words that modify that noun must agree in number. Nouns that cannot be counted or divided, such as "oil," "happiness," and "furniture," require singular modifiers.
7657 I found {ul}those five money{ul 0}.
7658 I found this money.
7659 I found those five pieces of money.
7660 She loved {ul}these two pasta{ul 0}.
7661 She loved these two types of pasta.
7662 She loved this pasta.
7672 Number Agreement
7688 If you are using a number to modify a noun, be sure the noun agrees with the number. Any number greater than one must modify a plural noun. "Kinds of" and
7689 "sorts of" are preferable to "kind of" and "sort of" if you are completing the phrase with a plural noun.
7690 Five {ul}boy{ul 0} were happy.
7691 Five boys were happy.
7692 I cannot stay awake in these {ul}sort{ul 0} of meetings.
7693 I cannot stay awake in these sorts of meetings.
7704 Number Agreement
7720 A noun and the words that modify that noun must agree in number. "Many" and "few" modify plural nouns. "Much" and "less" modify nouns that cannot be counted
7721 or divided such as "much oil," "less happiness." In addition, the phrase "one of" must modify a plural noun.
7722 The town had {ul}less{ul 0} rentals last year.
7723 The town had fewer rentals last year.
7724 Many of his {ul}book{ul 0} are still in print.
7725 Many of his books are still in print.
7726 One of the {ul}business{ul 0} expanded.
7727 One of the businesses expanded.
7736 Number Agreement
7752 A noun and the words that modify that noun must agree in number. Some nouns can be used in either a singular or a plural sense. In these cases,
7753 consider how you are using the marked noun before choosing a modifier.
7754 Have you heard of {ul}these innovation{ul 0}?
7755 Have you heard of these innovations?
7756 Have you heard of this innovation?
7757 He does not have {ul}many time{ul 0} left in his schedule.
7758 He does not have much time left in his schedule.
7759 He does not have many times left in his schedule.
7768 Number Agreement
7784 Use "the entire" for "all" or "all of" when you mean a total or the whole of a singular item, as in "the entire apple." Use "all" or "all of"
7785 when you mean more than one item, as in "all businesses."
7786 After the party, {ul}all the{ul 0} house was a mess.
7787 After the party, the entire house was a mess.
7788 {ul}All of the{ul 0} store was renovated.
7789 The entire store was renovated.
7800 Use of "All"
7816 Although "various of" may be used informally, substitute "several of" for a more formal and traditional tone.
7817 {ul}Various{ul 0} of the salespeople spoke at the meeting.
7818 Several of the salespeople spoke at the meeting.
7819 They were interested in {ul}various{ul 0} of the new cars.
7820 They were interested in several of the new cars.
7832 Wordiness
7848 Use "less than" to refer to one countable item or less. Use "fewer than" to refer to more than one countable item, such as "houses" or "dogs."
7849 He spent {ul}fewer than{ul 0} one day cramming for the exam.
7850 He spent less than one day cramming for the exam.
7851 In one week, they drank {ul}fewer{ul 0} than 1/2 a gallon of milk.
7852 In one week, they drank less than 1/2 a gallon of milk.
7864 "Fewer" or "Less"
7880 Only one of the marked words is necessary to signal that a noun follows.
7881 {ul}His the{ul 0} answer was positive.
7882 His answer was positive.
7883 The answer was positive.
7884 {ul}Her our{ul 0} vacation was wonderful.
7885 Our vacation was wonderful.
7886 Her vacation was wonderful.
7896 Extra Word
7912 Only one of the marked words is necessary to signal that a noun follows.
7913 {ul}The a{ul 0} distance runner must practice every day.
7914 A distance runner must practice every day.
7915 The distance runner must practice every day.
7916 {ul}The this{ul 0} pie was the best he had ever baked.
7917 This pie was the best he had ever baked.
7918 The pie was the best he had ever baked.
7928 Extra Word
7944 Consider whether one of the two marked words is necessary to the meaning of your sentence or whether these words are in the correct order.
7945 {ul}The of{ul 0} road of life has many detours.
7946 The road of life has many detours.
7947 {ul}The we{ul 0} chefs have not yet made the eclairs.
7948 The chefs have not yet made the eclairs.
7949 We chefs have not yet made the eclairs.
7960 Order of Words
7976 For correct usage, you may need to reword your sentence by adding a preposition directly after the marked verb or by substituting a more appropriate verb. It is incorrect
7977 to put a direct object after the marked verb.
7978 Erica {ul}listened{ul 0} all sides.
7979 Erica listened to all sides.
7980 Erica evaluated all sides.
7981 The puppy {ul}disappeared{ul 0} the pancake.
7982 The puppy disappeared with the pancake.
7983 The puppy ate the pancake.
7992 Verb Confusion
8008 You may be confusing the marked verb with a similar sounding verb. Some verbs must have a direct object to complete their action and to make
8009 sense in a sentence, while other verbs cannot take a direct object.
8010 The new student {ul}adopted{ul 0} to the class.
8011 The new student adapted to the class.
8012 Julie {ul}lays{ul 0} on the couch.
8013 Julie lies on the couch.
8024 Verb Confusion
8040 Certain verbs must be followed by a gerund (the "ing" form of a verb).
8041 Tomorrow, the marathoner will try {ul}break{ul 0} the world record.
8042 Tomorrow, the marathoner will try breaking the world record.
8043 Barbara suggests {ul}to go{ul 0} to a Japanese restaurant.
8044 Barbara suggests going to a Japanese restaurant.
8056 Verb Form
8072 After certain auxiliary verbs such as "can" or "may," use the base form of the verb.
8073 Is it true that the broker cannot {ul}rewriting{ul 0} the contract?
8074 Is it true that the broker cannot rewrite the contract?
8075 They had never {ul}be{ul 0} in love.
8076 They had never been in love.
8088 Verb Form
8104 If you are forming an infinitive, use the base verb form after "to."
8105 To {ul}captured{ul 0} a larger market share will be challenging.
8106 To capture a larger market share will be challenging.
8107 She wanted to {ul}sat{ul 0} down.
8108 She wanted to sit down.
8120 Verb Form
8168 Some pairs of verbs may not be used together. Simplify your sentence by choosing one of the two marked verbs or consider the suggested replacement.
8169 The student may {ul}can{ul 0} go to the appointment after lunch.
8170 The student may be able to go to the appointment after lunch.
8171 Might I {ul}could{ul 0} join you for dinner?
8172 Might I be able to join you for dinner?
8173 I {ul}may will{ul 0} help you with your annual report.
8174 I will help you with your annual report.
8175 I may help you with your annual report.
8184 Verb Use
8200 Generally, it is incorrect to repeat twice in a row any form of the verb "to be."
8201 The lyrics of the song {ul}was were{ul 0} sad.
8202 The lyrics of the song were sad.
8203 {ul}Was is{ul 0} Eleanor happy to turn twenty?
8204 Is Eleanor happy to turn twenty?
8205 Was Eleanor happy to turn twenty?
8216 Extra Word
8232 If you are expressing some form of wish, desire, or uncertainty, use the specific verb form that reflects the mood of uncertainty.
8233 I wish I {ul}was{ul 0} home.
8234 I wish I were home.
8235 The manager asked that we {ul}are{ul 0} here for the annual meeting.
8236 The manager asked that we be here for the annual meeting.
8237 The gunslinger would have left town sooner if he {ul}would have{ul 0} known the sheriff was coming.
8238 The gunslinger would have left town sooner if he had known the sheriff was coming.
8248 Verb Use
8264 Generally, if the first verb of a sentence is in the past tense, all subsequent verbs must be in the past tense.
8265 Dr. Davis wrote that Susan {ul}may{ul 0} leave for Calcutta.
8266 Dr. Davis wrote that Susan might leave for Calcutta.
8267 The chemist said that the laboratory {ul}can{ul 0} begin renovations soon.
8268 The chemist said that the laboratory could begin renovations soon.
8280 Verb Use
8296 For conciseness, consider shortening the marked verb phrase to the simpler "to" plus the correct main verb form.
8297 Michael would have liked to {ul}have seen{ul 0} the movie.
8298 Michael would have liked to see the movie.
8299 Kim would have been sad to {ul}have left{ul 0} the party early.
8300 Kim would have been sad to leave the party early.
8312 Verb Use
8328 Verbs that share the same subject in a sentence should have the same tense.
8329 {ul}Stephen cooked a vegetarian meal and happily eats it.{ul 0}
8330 Stephen cooks a vegetarian meal and happily eats it.
8331 Stephen cooked a vegetarian meal. Now, he happily eats it.
8332 {ul}Anna sent her letter of acceptance and is waiting for a reply.{ul 0}
8333 Anna sent her letter of acceptance and awaited a reply.
8334 Anna sent her letter of acceptance. Today, she is waiting for a reply.
8344 Verb Use
8360 Although "to be able to" may be used informally to mean "can," consider replacing the phrase with the more concise "can."
8361 This baseball batter {ul}was able to{ul 0} be struck out every game.
8362 This baseball batter could be struck out every game.
8363 The math puzzle {ul}is able to{ul 0} be solved only by Kim.
8364 The math puzzle can be solved only by Kim.
8376 Verb Use
8392 This sentence may overuse passive verbs (the subject receives the action, as in "Catherine was hit by the ball"). For a more forceful and convincing sentence, consider
8393 changing one or more of these verbs to the active voice (the subject is doing the action, as in "The ball hit Catherine"). Alternatively, delete one of the passives.
8394 After the scandal, he {ul}was ordered to be put{ul 0} on leave.
8395 After the scandal, he was ordered on leave.
8396 After the scandal, the general ordered him on leave.
8397 All fourth graders {ul}are encouraged to be tested{ul 0}.
8398 We encourage all fourth graders to take the test.
8408 Passive Voice
8424 Certain verbs cannot be paired with forms of the verb "to be." Use the simplest form of these verbs (without the "ing") when you write about present or past action.
8425 Eric {ul}was preferring{ul 0} the opera to rock music.
8426 Eric preferred the opera to rock music.
8427 Jonathan {ul}is needing{ul 0} a break in his studies.
8428 Jonathan needs a break in his studies.
8440 Verb Use
8456 Although "do got" or "does got" may be used informally, replace "got" with "have" for a more formal or traditional tone.
8457 This year, I do {ul}got{ul 0} the worst case of flu ever.
8458 This year, I do have the worst case of flu ever.
8459 Julie does {ul}got{ul 0} a window office.
8460 Julie does have a window office.
8472 Verb Use
8488 The verb "ought" should be used with "to." In addition, it is incorrect to use "should not/shall not" or "have not/had not" in conjunction with "ought."
8489 You {ul}ought{ul 0} be feeling better now.
8490 You ought to be feeling better now.
8491 They {ul}should not ought{ul 0} to tease.
8492 They ought not to tease.
8504 Verb Use
8520 For clarity, consider keeping all parts of a verb phrase together. Place any modifying words directly before or after the verb phrase.
8521 You {ul}should under no circumstances be{ul 0} out later than 10 P.M.
8522 Under no circumstances should you be out later than 10 P.M.
8523 The Senator {ul}has, although one could hardly believe it, been talking{ul 0} for two days in a row.
8524 Although one could hardly believe it, the Senator has been talking for two days in a row.
8536 Order of Words
8552 Although "ain't," "irregardless," or "alright" may be used informally, these words are always incorrect in written text.
8553 It {ul}ain't{ul 0} quitting time yet.
8554 It isn't quitting time yet.
8555 Parents always love their children, {ul}irregardless{ul 0} of their behavior.
8556 Parents always love their children, regardless of their behavior.
8557 If it's {ul}alright{ul 0} with your father, you may go out tonight.
8558 If it's all right with your father, you may go out tonight.
8568 Non-standard Word
8584 If the marked words are an incomplete thought, consider developing this thought into a complete sentence by adding a subject or a verb or combining this text with
8585 another sentence.
8586 {ul}Meteors the entire night{ul 0}.
8587 We watched meteors the entire night.
8588 {ul}Because the teacher said to{ul 0}.
8589 You have to, because the teacher said to.
8600 Fragment
8616 If you are using a singular noun to indicate possession, use an apostrophe before the "s." If you are using a plural noun, use an apostrophe after the "s."
8617 Both {ul}neighbors{ul 0} dogs barked all night long.
8618 Both neighbors' dogs barked all night long.
8619 Ice hockey is {ul}Toms{ul 0} favorite sport.
8620 Ice hockey is Tom's favorite sport.
8632 Possessive Use
8648 The correct possessive form of "each other" is "each other's."
8649 The cat and the dog ate each {ul}others'{ul 0} food.
8650 The cat and the dog ate each other's food.
8651 The students did each {ul}others'{ul 0} homework.
8652 The students did each other's homework.
8664 Possessive Use
8680 If the marked noun modifies another noun, keep that marked noun singular even if the second noun is plural. For example, use "sugar substitute" or "sugar substitutes"
8681 but not "sugars substitutes." Alternatively, if the marked noun is possessive add an apostrophe.
8682 The {ul}tests{ul 0} results were positive.
8683 The test results were positive.
8684 The {ul}books{ul 0} convention was a huge success.
8685 The book convention was a huge success.
8696 Noun Pair
8712 If the marked word is plural but not possessive, you do not need an apostrophe before the "s."
8713 The regulation benefits many {ul}company's{ul 0}.
8714 The regulation benefits many companies.
8715 They had {ul}guest's{ul 0} for the weekend.
8716 They had guests for the weekend.
8728 Plural or Possessive
8744 If the marked word is possessive, you may need to specify, for clarity, "what" or "who" is owned or possessed.
8745 We always have Thanksgiving dinner at {ul}Aunt Lois'{ul 0}.
8746 We always have Thanksgiving dinner at Aunt Lois' house.
8747 The best place to buy oranges is {ul}Sue's{ul 0}.
8748 The best place to buy oranges is Sue's fruit market.
8760 Possessive Use
8776 If you are indicating joint ownership with two or more nouns, use the possessive form only once. Alternatively, if you are indicating separate ownership, use the
8777 possessive form of each noun.
8778 {ul}Jack's{ul 0} and Laura's new house is almost ready.
8779 Jack and Laura's new house is almost ready.
8780 {ul}Bob's{ul 0} and Joe's boat is not running very well.
8781 Bob and Joe's boat is not running very well.
8792 Possessive Use
8808 If you are indicating joint ownership with two or more nouns, use the possessive form only once. Alternatively, if you are indicating separate ownership, use the
8809 possessive form of each noun.
8810 {ul}Tom's{ul 0} and Joan's kids all moved to Arizona.
8811 Tom and Joan's kids all moved to Arizona.
8824 Possessive Use
8840 Capitalize the marked word if it is a proper name.
8841 Professor {ul}white{ul 0} was honored with another teaching award.
8842 Professor White was honored with another teaching award.
8843 Aunt {ul}gloria{ul 0} bakes the best apple dumplings.
8844 Aunt Gloria bakes the best apple dumplings.
8856 Capitalization
8872 When a pronoun precedes "else," add an " 's" to "else." It is incorrect to use the possessive form of the pronoun.
8873 Everyone thought the accident was {ul}everyone's else{ul 0} fault.
8874 Everyone thought the accident was everyone else's fault.
8875 Besides Juan and Anita's beautiful house, {ul}whose else{ul 0} home is on Vestrella Drive
8876 Besides Juan and Anita's beautiful house, who else's home is on Vestrella Drive?
8888 Possessive Use
8904 You may have an unnecessary punctuation mark or a misplaced punctuation mark.
8905 I am not sure{ul};,{ul 0} I think this is Bach.
8906 I am not sure; I think this is Bach.
8907 "Who are you?{ul}",{ul 0} I asked.
8908 "Who are you?" I asked.
8920 Punctuation
8936 Capitalize the first word of a sentence.
8937 {ul}it{ul 0} usually snows in November.
8938 It usually snows in November.
8939 {ul}does{ul 0} this book belong to you or to the library?
8940 Does this book belong to you or to the library?
8952 Capitalization
8968 Generally, words in a sentence should have only one space between them.
8969 The line {ul}was extra{ul 0} long.
8970 The line was extra long.
8971 She laughed all the {ul}way to{ul 0} the bank.
8972 She laughed all the way to the bank.
8984 Extra Space between Words
9000 Use at least one space after most punctuation. However, it is incorrect to insert a space after an opening parenthesis or an opening bracket.
9001 Take these charts{ul},reports,and{ul 0} memos to the copier.
9002 Take these charts, reports, and memos to the copier.
9003 He did not get a good grade on his {ul}( somewhat{ul 0} plagiarized) paper.
9004 He did not get a good grade on his (somewhat plagiarized) paper.
9016 Spacing
9032 Place most punctuation directly after the preceding word. However, do place a space directly before an opening parenthesis or an opening bracket.
9033 Everybody wants more {ul}parking ,{ul 0} better {ul}food ,{ul 0} and flexible hours.
9034 Everybody wants more parking, better food, and flexible hours.
9035 The memo said the picnic (employees {ul}only ){ul 0} has been rescheduled.
9036 The memo said the picnic (employees only) has been rescheduled.
9048 Extra Space
9064 If you want the marked group of words to be one sentence, the marked comma may be unnecessarily separating parts of your sentence and should be removed. If you want
9065 the marked group of words to be two sentences, replace the comma with a period.
9066 {ul}I hope, that should do it.{ul 0}
9067 I hope that should do it.
9068 I hope. That should do it.
9080 Comma Use
9096 If the marked comma does not contribute to the clarity of your sentence, consider removing the comma.
9097 Mary liked{ul},{ul 0} to read and eat oranges in bed.
9098 Mary liked to read and eat oranges in bed.
9099 We wanted{ul},{ul 0} to visit the Eiffel Tower.
9100 We wanted to visit the Eiffel Tower.
9112 Comma Use
9128 If the marked comma is separating two complete but related sentences, replace the comma with a semicolon. If the second half of your sentence begins with "then," add
9129 "and" before "then." In this case, use a comma to separate the two groups of words.
9130 She did not create these {ul}charts,{ul 0} this is not her team's project.
9131 She did not create these charts; this is not her team's project.
9132 She wrote up the idea, {ul}then{ul 0} she got a patent.
9133 She wrote up the idea, and then she got a patent.
9144 Comma Use
9160 If you want the marked group of words to be two separate sentences, replace the comma with a period. If you want the group of words to be one sentence, replace
9161 the comma with a semicolon or add a conjunction such as "and" or "but."
9162 {ul}Robert began to play Mozart, it was beautiful{ul 0}.
9163 Robert began to play Mozart; it was beautiful.
9164 Robert began to play Mozart. It was beautiful.
9165 Robert began to play Mozart, and it was beautiful.
9176 Comma Use
9192 If your sentence contains a group of words that is not essential to the meaning of your sentence, enclose the entire group of words with a pair of commas. It is incorrect
9193 to use only one comma.
9194 The soda, which Larry had {ul}shaken{ul 0} exploded all over his mother.
9195 The soda, which Larry had shaken, exploded all over his mother.
9196 His mother, who usually laughed at his {ul}jokes{ul 0} put Larry in his room.
9197 His mother, who usually laughed at his jokes, put Larry in his room.
9208 Comma Use
9224 If your sentence is modified by a group of words that begins with "which," for clarity, use a comma before "which" to separate that group of words.
9225 He reads these {ul}essays{ul 0} which is nice.
9226 He reads these essays, which is nice.
9227 She uses these {ul}books{ul 0} which is important.
9228 She uses these books, which is important.
9240 Comma Use
9256 It is incorrect to use a comma to separate a verb from its complement (a word or phrase that comes after a verb and completes the meaning of the subject or the verb).
9257 She {ul}kneaded,{ul 0} the dough.
9258 She kneaded the dough.
9259 The actors {ul}said,{ul 0} that the swords were real.
9260 The actors said that the swords were real.
9272 Comma Use
9288 If you have placed the subject of your sentence directly next to the verb, it is incorrect to use a comma to separate the subject and verb.
9289 The {ul}dog,{ul 0} ate my homework again.
9290 The dog ate my homework again.
9291 His {ul}excuses,{ul 0} were not very original.
9292 His excuses were not very original.
9304 Comma Use
9320 If you are using a conjunction to connect only two items, it is incorrect to use a comma before the conjunction. In addition, if you are using a conjunction
9321 to add a phrase that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence, it is incorrect to use a comma before the conjunction.
9322 {ul}Meng,{ul 0} and Kim are hiking across Ireland.
9323 Meng and Kim are hiking across Ireland.
9324 Two books of {ul}fiction,{ul 0} and a book of poetry were on the table.
9325 Two books of fiction and a book of poetry were on the table.
9336 Comma Use
9352 The correct form for writing a date is "month day, year" or "month year." It is incorrect to put a comma between the month and the day, or between the month and the year.
9353 He graduated in {ul}May,{ul 0} 1995.
9354 He graduated in May 1995.
9355 She wrote the letter on {ul}July,{ul 0} 15, 1994.
9356 She wrote the letter on July 15, 1994.
9368 Comma Use
9384 If the phrase beginning with "as" explains a situation, separate that phrase with a comma.
9385 The sales report is {ul}important{ul 0} as we want to monitor sales.
9386 The sales report is important, as we want to monitor sales.
9387 The horse could not {ul}run{ul 0} as it was lame.
9388 The horse could not run, as it was lame.
9400 Comma Use
9416 It is unnecessary to use a comma after "but."
9417 He studied diligently, {ul}but,{ul 0} he failed the exam anyway.
9418 He studied diligently, but he failed the exam anyway.
9419 The movie has great actors, {ul}but,{ul 0} the plot is weak.
9420 The movie has great actors, but the plot is weak.
9432 Comma Use
9448 If this sentence is a question, use a question mark to end the sentence.
9449 Who is that man in the black {ul}coat.{ul 0}
9450 Who is that man in the black coat?
9451 Can you use {ul}chopsticks.{ul 0}
9452 Can you use chopsticks?
9464 Possible Question
9480 Consider rewording this question for a more formal or traditional tone.
9481 {ul}What if she receives the promotion?{ul 0}
9482 What will happen if she receives the promotion?
9483 {ul}You saw whom?{ul 0}
9484 Whom did you see?
9496 Non-Standard Question
9512 If the marked semicolon does not join two groups of words that would make sense as separate sentences, replace the semicolon with a comma. Alternatively, delete the
9513 semicolon and use no punctuation.
9514 They explored the ruins{ul};{ul 0} in addition to the silver mine.
9515 They explored the ruins, in addition to the silver mine.
9516 We did not sail{ul};{ul 0} because it was too calm a day.
9517 We did not sail because it was too calm a day.
9528 Semicolon Use
9544 Use a colon after a complete sentence to set off a list. It is incorrect to use a colon to set off a quotation.
9545 The breakfast specials {ul}are:{ul 0} blueberry pancakes and broccoli quiche.
9546 The breakfast specials are blueberry pancakes and broccoli quiche.
9547 The CEO {ul}said:{ul 0} We will expand our base in the next six months.
9548 The CEO said, "We will expand our base in the next six months."
9560 Colon Use
9576 It is incorrect to introduce a direct quote with "that." If you want to indirectly quote a source, use "that," reword the quotation in your own words, and delete
9577 the quotation marks.
9578 Richard {ul}said that{ul 0} "You could hear the sea in this shell."
9579 Richard said, "You could hear the sea in this shell."
9580 Richard said that you could hear the sea in this shell.
9581 Susan {ul}exclaimed that{ul 0} "There are the harbor seals!"
9582 Susan exclaimed, "There are the harbor seals!"
9583 Susan exclaimed that she saw the harbor seals!
9592 Use of "That"
9608 Use a comma as well as quotation marks to separate the quote from the rest of your sentence.
9609 Catherine {ul}cried{ul 0} "I am so happy to see you."
9610 Catherine cried, "I am so happy to see you."
9624 Punctuation with Quotations
9640 Do not use a comma before the pronoun "that".
9641 If these words are not essential to the meaning of your sentence, use "which" and separate the words with a comma.
9642 Did you learn the {ul}dance, that{ul 0} is from Guatemala?
9643 Did you learn the dance, which is from Guatemala?
9644 Did you learn the dance that is from Guatemala?
9645 I read the {ul}book, that{ul 0} is on the counter last year.
9646 I read the book that is on the counter last year.
9647 I read the book, which is on the counter, last year.
9656 "That" or "Which"
9672 Although "the way how" may be used informally, consider using "the way that" or "the way in which" for a more formal or traditional tone.
9673 She described the way {ul}how{ul 0} she obtained an interview.
9674 She described the way that she obtained an interview.
9675 She described the way in which she obtained an interview.
9676 Do you know the way {ul}how{ul 0} the company circulates resumes?
9677 Do you know the way that the company circulates resumes?
9678 Do you know the way in which the company circulates resumes?
9688 Use of "How"
9704 Although "the way how to" plus a verb, as in "the way how to go," may be used informally, consider using "the way to" plus a verb for a more
9705 formal or traditional tone.
9706 She taught me the {ul}way how{ul 0} to write a budget.
9707 She taught me the way to write a budget.
9708 Michael told him the {ul}way how{ul 0} to get to Pikes Peak.
9709 Michael told him the way to get to Pikes Peak.
9720 Use of "How"
9736 It is unnecessary to use "that" after "whatever" or "whichever."
9737 Send me whatever {ul}information that{ul 0} you think I need.
9738 Send me whatever information you think I need.
9739 Did you find whichever {ul}article that{ul 0} the teacher assigned?
9740 Did you find whichever article the teacher assigned?
9752 Use of "That"
9768 Generally, use "who" or "whom" to refer to people. Use "that" or "which" to refer to anything non-human.
9769 She bought the desk, {ul}whom{ul 0} he was selling.
9770 She bought the desk, which he was selling.
9771 They saw the play {ul}who{ul 0} got good reviews.
9772 They saw the play that got good reviews.
9784 "Who", "That" or "Which"
9832 If this group of words is a question, add a question mark. Otherwise, these words may be expressing an incomplete thought that should be developed into a complete sentence
9833 by adding a subject or a verb.
9834 {ul}Which is the hardest blow.{ul 0}
9835 Which is the hardest blow?
9836 This is the hardest blow.
9837 {ul}Which was the most difficult part of the test.{ul 0}
9838 Which was the most difficult part of the test?
9839 This was the most difficult part of the test.
9848 Fragment or Question
9864 If you intended this group of words to be two sentences, add a period in the appropriate place. The first word of each sentence should be capitalized.
9880 New Sentence
9896 If you are listing three or more items in a row, consider replacing all but the last of the conjunctions with a comma. Place a comma before
9897 the remaining conjunction, removing repetitive subjects or verbs if necessary.
9898 {ul}Graphs or tables{ul 0} or lists could all be ways to illustrate your point.
9899 Graphs, tables, or lists could all be ways to illustrate your point.
9900 We {ul}hoed and we sowed{ul 0} and then we reaped.
9901 We hoed, we sowed, and then we reaped.
9912 Simplify
9928 If your sentence includes a statement about a question, rather than a direct question, end your sentence with a period rather than a question mark. Generally,
9929 statements end with a period.
9930 I wonder where the movie is {ul}playing?{ul 0}
9931 I wonder where the movie is playing.
9932 She asked if the train will arrive by {ul}noon?{ul 0}
9933 She asked if the train will arrive by noon.
9944 Question Mark Use
9960 If you want to give certain parts of your sentence equal emphasis, construct these parts in a similar fashion. Repetition of word patterns or key words will make your
9961 sentence more balanced and easier to read.
9962 I do not know {ul}the person's name or how to contact her{ul 0}.
9963 I do not know the person's name or telephone number.
9964 I do not know how to find her name or how to contact her.
9965 She told the receptionist {ul}her name and where she was from{ul 0}.
9966 She told the receptionist her name and the name of her company.
9967 She told the receptionist what her name was and where she was from.
9976 Sentence Structure
9992 If you are using a conjunction such as "and" to connect two groups of words that have conflicting purposes, such as a question and a statement, consider rewriting
9993 as separate sentences. Alternatively, consider rewording your sentence to clarify your intent.
9994 {ul}It is snowing and do you have your car?{ul 0}
9995 It is snowing. Do you have your car?
9996 {ul}Does she teach English or perhaps she teaches German?{ul 0}
9997 Does she teach English or German?
9998 {ul}Will you ask my brother Mike, but Caroline doesn't need to know?{ul 0}
9999 Will you ask my brother Mike? Caroline doesn't need to know.
10008 Sentence Structure
10024 If you are using more than one verb in your sentence, be sure all the verbs are either active (the subject performs the action, as in "The ball hit Catherine") or passive
10025 (the subject receives the action, as in "Catherine was hit by the ball").
10026 {ul}The thief broke into the house and was caught by the police.{ul 0}
10027 The thief broke into the house, and the police caught him.
10028 {ul}Gail took down the book and was carried away by the love story.{ul 0}
10029 Gail took down the book, and the love story carried her away.
10040 Verb Use
10056 If the introductory phrase of your sentence cannot sensibly modify the subject, consider replacing the subject or modifying the structure of the sentence.
10057 {ul}Having run her marathon, it{ul 0} was time to be lazy.
10058 Having run her marathon, Martha decided it was time to be lazy.
10059 {ul}As our classmate, it{ul 0} was great to see her get the reward.
10060 It was great to see her, as our classmate, get the reward.
10072 Sentence Structure
10088 The verb of a sentence must agree with the subject in number and in person.
10089 What {ul}was{ul 0} Stephen and Laura like as schoolchildren?
10090 What were Stephen and Laura like as schoolchildren?
10091 Tom {ul}watch{ul 0} the snowy egret stab at the fish.
10092 Tom watches the snowy egret stab at the fish.
10104 Subject-Verb Agreement
10120 The verb of a sentence must agree with the subject in number and in person.
10121 {ul}Joe drunk{ul 0} a pint of cold milk.
10122 Joe drank a pint of cold milk.
10123 Joe had drunk a pint of cold milk.
10124 Joe has drunk a pint of cold milk.
10125 {ul}I going{ul 0} to the store.
10126 I go to the store.
10127 I am going to the store.
10128 I was going to the store.
10136 Subject-Verb Agreement
10152 Generally, the subject of a sentence must agree in number with its complement. In the sentence "Dolphins are animals," "dolphins" is the subject and "animals" is
10153 the complement.
10154 A dolphin is {ul}mammals{ul 0}, not a fish.
10155 A dolphin is a mammal, not a fish.
10156 She has been the {ul}winners{ul 0} for the past five years.
10157 She has been the winner for the past five years.
10168 Sentence Structure
10184 Generally, phrases such as "the one" use singular verbs.
10185 He is the only one of the soccer players who {ul}have{ul 0} gone to the World Cup.
10186 He is the only one of the soccer players who has gone to the World Cup.
10187 Jennifer is the youngest one of the engineers who {ul}have{ul 0} been promoted.
10188 Jennifer is the youngest one of the engineers who has been promoted.
10200 Subject-Verb Agreement
10216 The marked word or phrase may be overused or unnecessary to the meaning of your sentence. For a more forceful and convincing sentence, consider replacing or
10217 shortening the word or phrase.
10218 Johann got up at {ul}the crack of dawn{ul 0} the day he asked Suki to marry him.
10219 Johann got up at dawn the day he asked Suki to marry him.
10220 The only {ul}stumbling block{ul 0} for Suki was that she loved Roger.
10221 The only obstacle for Suki was that she loved Roger.
10232 Cliché
10248 Although "this here" or "that there" may be used informally, delete "here" or "there" for a more traditional or formal tone.
10249 {ul}This here{ul 0} land has plenty of oil.
10250 This land has plenty of oil.
10251 I only have {ul}that there{ul 0} condominium left to sell.
10252 I only have that condominium left to sell.
10264 Colloquialism
10280 Although "way," "way too," "real," "mighty," "plenty," and "awfully" may be used informally, consider rewording your sentence for a more formal or traditional tone.
10281 Maria was {ul}awfully{ul 0} nervous before her first violin concert.
10282 Maria was very nervous before her first violin concert.
10283 Paul ran {ul}mighty{ul 0} fast in the sprint.
10284 Paul ran very fast in the sprint.
10296 Colloquialism
10312 Although "all that" or "not all that" may be used informally, substitute "very" or "not very" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10313 It is not {ul}all that{ul 0} hard to pass the typing test.
10314 It is not very hard to pass the typing test.
10315 This new book is not {ul}all that{ul 0} difficult to read.
10316 This new book is not very difficult to read.
10328 Colloquialism
10344 It is incorrect to use "better" alone as a verb. For clarity and correct usage, substitute "had better."
10345 She {ul}better{ul 0} finish the report before the deadline.
10346 She had better finish the report before the deadline.
10347 The report {ul}better{ul 0} be correct.
10348 The report had better be correct.
10360 Colloquialism
10376 For clarity, avoid using two possessives to modify one noun.
10377 {ul}Her boyfriend's mother's{ul 0} cooking is delicious.
10378 Her boyfriend's mother cooks very well.
10379 {ul}The little boy's dog's{ul 0} collar is blue.
10380 The collar of the little boy's dog is blue.
10392 Colloquialism
10408 Certain adjectives, such as "empty," "final," "perfect," "unique," and "equal," cannot be modified. For example, if something is "perfect," it cannot
10409 become "more perfect." For clarity and logic, consider removing the marked word.
10410 Baryshnikov's artistic sense is {ul}very unique{ul 0} among his peers.
10411 Baryshnikov's artistic sense is unique among his peers.
10412 The president's decision is {ul}completely final{ul 0}.
10413 The president's decision is final.
10424 Colloquialism
10440 Although "anyplace" or "someplace" may be used informally, substitute "anywhere" or "somewhere" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10441 However, if you are referring to a specific location, "any place" or "some place" is correct.
10442 He wants to live {ul}someplace{ul 0} warm.
10443 He wants to live somewhere warm.
10444 {ul}Anyplace{ul 0} she works becomes more efficient.
10445 Any place she works becomes more efficient.
10446 Anywhere she works becomes more efficient.
10456 Colloquialism
10472 Substitute the appropriate form of the verb "to be" for "get" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10473 It takes courage to look for a job after {ul}getting{ul 0} turned down.
10474 It takes courage to look for a job after being turned down.
10475 The dog {ul}gets{ul 0} fed twice a day.
10476 The dog is fed twice a day.
10488 Colloquialism
10504 Although "this" or "these" may be used informally, consider one of the suggestions for a more formal or traditional tone.
10505 She has {ul}this{ul 0} voice that is very soothing.
10506 She has a voice that is very soothing.
10507 She has the voice that is very soothing.
10508 {ul}These friends{ul 0} of hers have six cats.
10509 Friends of hers have six cats.
10510 Some friends of hers have six cats.
10520 Colloquialism
10536 Although "till" may be used informally, substitute "until" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10537 I talked to him {ul}till{ul 0} he changed his mind.
10538 I talked to him until he changed his mind.
10539 She waited {ul}till{ul 0} midnight, but he did not return.
10540 She waited until midnight, but he did not return.
10552 Colloquialism
10568 It is incorrect to use "very" directly in front of certain verbs. Consider substituting "much."
10569 The past should be {ul}very{ul 0} remembered.
10570 The past should be much remembered.
10571 During the panel discussion, the business was {ul}very{ul 0} applauded.
10572 During the panel discussion, the business was much applauded.
10584 Colloquialism
10600 Although "is when" and "is where" may be used informally, reword your sentence for a more formal or traditional tone.
10601 An {ul}election{ul 0} is {ul}where{ul 0} voters choose representatives by ballot.
10602 An election is the process of choosing representatives by ballot.
10616 Colloquialism
10632 Generally, use "accept" as a verb when you mean "to receive" or "to approve." Use "except" as a preposition when you mean some type of exclusion.
10633 She {ul}excepted{ul 0} the flowers with our thanks.
10634 She accepted the flowers with our thanks.
10635 She would not agree to {ul}except{ul 0} his apology.
10636 She would not agree to accept his apology.
10648 Commonly Confused Words
10664 Use "couple" with "of" if you mean "a few."
10665 Every {ul}couple{ul 0} minutes the audience gave him a standing ovation.
10666 Every couple of minutes the audience gave him a standing ovation.
10667 It rains here every {ul}couple{ul 0} days.
10668 It rains here every couple of days.
10680 Colloquialism
10696 Unless you are using "got" for emphasis, use "have" in place of "got" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10697 We {ul}have not got{ul 0} a problem with this deadline.
10698 We do not have a problem with this deadline.
10699 Don't you think I {ul}have got{ul 0} to win the lottery sometime?
10700 Don't you think I have to win the lottery sometime?
10712 Colloquialism
10728 Although "try and" may be used informally, substitute "try to" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10729 We will try {ul}and{ul 0} watch the orangutans in the morning when they are the liveliest.
10730 We will try to watch the orangutans in the morning when they are the liveliest.
10731 Sometimes it feels good to try {ul}and{ul 0} help others.
10732 Sometimes it feels good to try to help others.
10744 Colloquialism
10760 Although "the reason is because" may be used informally, substitute "the reason is that" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10761 The reason the building survived is {ul}because{ul 0} it was constructed well.
10762 The reason the building survived is that it was constructed well.
10763 The reason there was an earthquake was {ul}because{ul 0} the plates of the earth shifted.
10764 The reason there was an earthquake was that the plates of the earth shifted.
10776 Colloquialism
10792 Although "how come" may be used informally, substitute "why" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10793 {ul}How come the computer always breaks{ul 0} down the day before a deadline?
10794 Why does the computer always break down the day before a deadline?
10795 {ul}How come Maria likes{ul 0} only pistachio ice cream?
10796 Why does Maria like only pistachio ice cream?
10808 Colloquialism
10824 Although "a lot of" or "lots of" may be used informally, substitute "many" or "much" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10825 {ul}A lot of{ul 0} people are excited about the new stadium.
10826 Many people are excited about the new stadium.
10827 The child has {ul}lots of{ul 0} friends.
10828 The child has many friends.
10840 Colloquialism
10856 Although the marked word or words may be appropriate for some situations and styles of writing, consider the suggestion for a more formal or traditional tone.
10857 He has the {ul}know-how{ul 0} to be an instructor, but not the personality.
10858 He has the expertise to be an instructor, but not the personality.
10859 The proposal for the new business may be a {ul}one-shot{ul 0} offer.
10860 The proposal for the new business may be a one-time offer.
10872 Colloquialism
10888 Although phrases such as "Where on earth" or "What the heck" may be used informally, reword your sentence for a more formal or traditional tone.
10889 {ul}Where on earth{ul 0} have you been?
10890 Where have you been?
10891 {ul}What the heck{ul 0} did you think you were doing?
10892 What did you think you were doing?
10904 Colloquialism
10920 Although "kind of" or "sort of" may be used informally, substitute "somewhat" for a more formal or traditional tone.
10921 She was {ul}kind of{ul 0} complimentary.
10922 She was somewhat complimentary.
10923 They were {ul}sort of{ul 0} unhappy.
10924 They were somewhat unhappy.
10936 Colloquialism
10952 Although verb contractions may be used informally, substitute the full form of the verb phrase for a more traditional or formal tone.
10953 {ul}He'll{ul 0} succeed where others have failed.
10954 He will succeed where others have failed.
10955 Lately, {ul}I've{ul 0} been reading Shakespeare.
10956 Lately, I have been reading Shakespeare.
10968 Contraction Use
10984 Although the marked word or phrase may be acceptable in some situations, consider the suggestion that includes both men and women.
10985 They designed the cooking class for {ul}housewives{ul 0}.
10986 They designed the cooking class for homemakers.
10987 Have you seen the {ul}stewardess{ul 0}?
10988 Have you seen the flight attendant?
10989 Have you seen the steward?
11000 Gender-Specific Language
11016 Generally, it is incorrect to add "-wise" to the end of a word. Use the substitution "with respect to" or reword your sentence.
11017 {ul}Eating-wise{ul 0}, my toddler will nibble only on avocados.
11018 With respect to eating, my toddler will nibble only on avocados.
11019 {ul}Driving-wise{ul 0}, Tony has only crashed twice during his lessons.
11020 With respect to driving, Tony has only crashed twice during his lessons.
11032 Jargon
11048 Although "accompanying" may be used informally, substitute "enclosed" for a more formal or traditional tone.
11049 Please read the {ul}accompanying{ul 0} document.
11050 Please read the enclosed document.
11051 He reads the {ul}accompanying{ul 0} letter carefully.
11052 He reads the enclosed letter carefully.
11064 Jargon
11080 Although the marked word or phrase may be used in some situations, use the suggested replacement for a more formal or traditional tone.
11081 We spent {ul}on the order of{ul 0} $200 making repairs.
11082 We spent approximately $200 making repairs.
11083 Instead of accepting her response, the {ul}headhunter{ul 0} fired the office assistant.
11084 Instead of accepting her response, the recruiter fired the office assistant.
11096 Jargon
11112 Although sentences beginning with "and," "but," "or," or "plus" may be used informally, use the suggested replacement for a more formal or traditional tone.
11113 {ul}Plus{ul 0} regional sales are up this quarter.
11114 In addition, regional sales are up this quarter.
11115 Moreover, regional sales are up this quarter.
11116 {ul}But{ul 0} we could go to the movies.
11117 Nevertheless, we could go to the movies.
11118 However, we could go the movies.
11128 Beginning of Sentence
11144 Although sentences beginning with "also," "too," "so," or "though" may be used informally, use the suggested replacement for a more formal or traditional tone.
11145 {ul}Too{ul 0}, Bruce planted a variety of hollyhocks.
11146 In addition, Bruce planted a variety of hollyhocks.
11147 {ul}Though{ul 0}, Debbie prefers his roses.
11148 However, Debbie prefers his roses.
11160 Connecting Words
11176 Although "plus" may be used informally to join two complete sentences, substitute "in addition" or "and" for a more formal or traditional tone.
11177 The children cooked dinner {ul}plus{ul 0} they cleaned the house.
11178 The children cooked dinner; in addition, they cleaned the house.
11179 The cat tipped over the milk, {ul}plus{ul 0} he stole the cheese.
11180 The cat tipped over the milk, and he stole the cheese.
11192 Use of "Plus"
11208 Although sentences beginning with "hopefully" may be used informally, consider substituting "I hope that" for clarity.
11209 {ul}Hopefully{ul 0}, I can photograph the canyon.
11210 I hope that I can photograph the canyon.
11211 {ul}Hopefully{ul 0}, my children will buy me a beach house when I grow old.
11212 I hope that my children will buy me a beach house when I grow old.
11224 Use of "Hopefully"
11240 For clarity, use "not all" rather than "all...not." Use "not every" rather than "every...not." Alternatively, reword your sentence, deleting "not."
11241 {ul}All languages are not{ul 0} difficult to learn.
11242 Not all languages are difficult to learn.
11243 No languages are difficult to learn.
11244 {ul}Every citizen did not vote{ul 0} in the election.
11245 Not every citizen voted in the election.
11246 No citizen voted in the election.
11256 Sentence Structure
11272 It may be unclear which word is modified by "more." For clarity, consider rewording your sentence.
11273 The boardroom needs {ul}more comfortable furniture{ul 0}.
11274 The boardroom needs more furniture that is comfortable.
11275 The boardroom needs furniture that is more comfortable.
11276 Businesses are looking for {ul}more capable employees{ul 0}.
11277 Businesses are looking for employees that are more capable.
11278 Businesses are looking for more employees that are capable.
11288 Sentence Structure
11304 It may be unclear what "more than" is comparing. For clarity, consider extending your sentence.
11305 She encourages Michael more {ul}than Barbara{ul 0}.
11306 She encourages Michael more than Barbara does.
11307 She encourages Michael more than she encourages Barbara.
11320 Comparisons
11336 To make your sentence easier to read or to signal a pause, consider using a comma to set off words or phrases (especially introductory words or phrases).
11337 {ul}Unfortunately{ul 0} it rained the day of the picnic.
11338 Unfortunately, it rained the day of the picnic.
11339 Once he got {ul}home{ul 0} he began to calm down.
11340 Once he got home, he began to calm down.
11352 Comma Use
11368 Generally, "really," "fairly," "pretty," and "absolutely" add no meaning to a sentence and should be deleted.
11369 Ellen is {ul}pretty busy{ul 0} with work these days.
11370 Ellen is busy with work these days.
11371 Joe's cooking is {ul}absolutely terrible{ul 0}.
11372 Joe's cooking is terrible.
11384 Wordiness
11400 Although verb phrases such as "want for" or "like for" may be used informally, delete "for" for a more formal or traditional tone.
11401 Keiko wanted {ul}for her{ul 0} students to be quiet.
11402 Keiko wanted her students to be quiet.
11403 Her students liked {ul}for recess{ul 0} to come early.
11404 Her students liked recess to come early.
11416 Extra Word
11432 It is incorrect to use "myself" alone as a subject, as in "Jake and myself went to town," or alone as an object, as in "You will talk only to myself."
11433 The graphic artist showed {ul}myself{ul 0} how to color slides.
11434 The graphic artist showed me how to color slides.
11435 {ul}Myself{ul 0} felt very lucky that day.
11436 I felt very lucky that day.
11448 Reflexive Pronoun Use
11464 You may be using more words than you need to express your idea. Consider deleting words that do not add meaning to your sentence and repositioning
11465 other words for a more forceful and convincing tone.
11466 Teachers often think {ul}students who are smart{ul 0} do not have to study hard.
11467 Teachers often think smart students do not have to study hard.
11468 {ul}Movies that are scary{ul 0} can be popular with children.
11469 Scary movies can be popular with children.
11480 Wordiness
11496 You may be using more words than you need to express your idea. Consider deleting introductory phrases such as "there is," "there are," "it is," and
11497 "it was" for a more forceful and convincing tone.
11498 {ul}There were some days that Mary wished would last forever.{ul 0}
11499 Some days Mary wished would last forever.
11500 {ul}It was Mary who{ul 0} reached the peak of Mt. Everest first in her group.
11501 Mary reached the peak of Mt. Everest first in her group.
11512 Wordiness
11528 "To be" is unnecessary in the phrase "consider to be" and should be deleted.
11529 In the folk tale, the mosquito is considered {ul}to be the{ul 0} biggest pest.
11530 In the folk tale, the mosquito is considered the biggest pest.
11531 The lion is considered {ul}to be wise{ul 0} and fair.
11532 The lion is considered wise and fair.
11544 Wordiness
11560 You may be using more words than you need to express your idea. For a more concise sentence, consider deleting any repetitive words.
11561 Peter had a high fever {ul}and also{ul 0} a skin rash.
11562 Peter had a high fever and a skin rash.
11563 He did not stay sick for long, {ul}but yet{ul 0} we were worried.
11564 He did not stay sick for long, but we were worried.
11576 Wordiness
11592 If your sentence is phrased in the negative, consider rephrasing it in the positive, deleting "not" or "never," for a more forceful and convincing tone.
11593 Anna does {ul}not dislike{ul 0} Julie.
11594 Anna likes Julie.
11595 Anna was {ul}never unhappy{ul 0} with Julie's work.
11596 Anna was always happy with Julie's work.
11608 Wordiness
11624 If your sentence is phrased in the negative, consider rephrasing in the positive, deleting "not," "no," or "never" for a more forceful and convincing tone.
11625 The store is {ul}not more crowded{ul 0} on Saturday than it is on Sunday.
11626 The store is as crowded on Saturday as it is on Sunday.
11627 The salespeople are {ul}not less helpful{ul 0} than usual.
11628 The salespeople are as helpful as always.
11640 Negation Use
11656 Although "whether or not" may be used informally, delete "or not" for a more formal or traditional tone.
11657 Veronica cannot decide whether {ul}or not{ul 0} the hazelnuts are too expensive.
11658 Veronica cannot decide whether the hazelnuts are too expensive.
11659 Call this number to see {ul}whether or not{ul 0} the bus will run.
11660 Call this number to see whether the bus will run.
11672 Wordiness
11688 Although "sure as" may be used informally, substitute "sure that" for a more formal or traditional tone.
11689 Richard is not sure {ul}as{ul 0} he wants to go skiing.
11690 Richard is not sure that he wants to go skiing.
11691 Susan was not sure {ul}as{ul 0} it was a good idea to leave.
11692 Susan was not sure that it was a good idea to leave.
11704 Non-Standard Use
11720 The construction "possible...may" unnecessarily repeats the idea of possibility. For conciseness, choose either "may" or "possible" and reword your sentence.
11721 {ul}It is possible Harry may{ul 0} eat the most meringue pies.
11722 Harry may eat the most meringue pies.
11723 It is possible Harry will eat the most meringue pies.
11724 {ul}It is more possible Harry may{ul 0} have a stomachache.
11725 It is more possible Harry will have a stomachache.
11726 Harry may have a stomachache.
11736 Wordiness
11752 You may be using more words than you need to express your idea. Consider replacing the marked word or words with a more concise alternative.
11753 She explained the rules {ul}over and over again{ul 0}.
11754 She explained the rules repeatedly.
11755 We will call {ul}at such time as{ul 0} we make a decision.
11756 We will call when we make a decision.
11768 Wordiness
11784 You have the option of using a comma and "and" before the last item in a list or leaving the comma out. Whatever your choice, be consistent throughout your text.
11800 Comma Use
11816 When using quotations you have the option to put additional punctuation either inside or outside of your quotation marks. Either choice is correct, but it is
11817 important to be consistent throughout your text.
11832 Punctuation with Quotations
11848 You have the option of setting the number of spaces (one or two) between your sentences. Whatever your choice, it is important to be consistent throughout your text.
11849 We came.{ul} {ul 0}We saw.{ul} {ul 0}We conquered.
11850 We came. We saw. We conquered.
11864 Spaces between Sentences
11880 Your sentence may be too long to be effective and may be hard to follow. For clarity and conciseness, consider rewording your sentence or splitting it into two sentences.
11896 Long Sentence
11912 You may be using too many nouns in a row for an easily understandable sentence. For clarity, consider rewording your sentence.
11913 The 1997 {ul}poetry council lecture series attendance{ul 0} was record-breaking.
11914 The attendance of the poetry council's lecture series was record-breaking.
11915 Please give them the {ul}school office business phone number{ul 0}.
11916 Please give them the business phone number of the school office.
11928 Too Many Nouns
11944 You may be using too many modifying phrases for an easily understandable sentence. For clarity and conciseness, consider rewording your sentence or splitting it into
11945 two or more sentences.
11946 The girl {ul}with curly hair in the red dress with the bows on the stage between the twins with freckles{ul 0} sings like a lark.
11947 The girl has freckles and curly hair. She is wearing a red dress with bows and is standing between the twins. She sings like a lark.
11960 Too Many Phrases
11976 For clarity or conciseness, consider deleting or repositioning some or all of the words between "to" and the verb it is paired with.
11977 I try {ul}to all month long jog{ul 0} each day.
11978 All month long, I try to jog each day.
11979 The team plans {ul}to rather quickly complete{ul 0} the first phase.
11980 The team plans to complete the first phase quickly.
11992 Split Infinitive
12008 For clarity or conciseness, consider deleting or repositioning some of the marked words.
12009 He walked {ul}away from in any case changing{ul 0} his life.
12010 In any case, he walked away from changing his life.
12011 She knows the importance {ul}of carefully and completely washing{ul 0} the fruit.
12012 She knows the importance of washing the fruit carefully and completely.
12024 Split Prepositional Phrase
12040 Although using "I," "me," and "mine" is appropriate for many writing styles, technical or formal writing requires a less personal approach.
12041 {ul}I{ul 0} believe this theory is the most likely answer.
12042 This theory is the most likely answer.
12043 {ul}My{ul 0} interviews were one hour each.
12044 The interviews were one hour each.
12056 Use of First Person
12072 The pairs of words "as...as," and "more...than" cannot be interchanged. Use "as...as" instead of "so...as."
12073 The grapes this year will be as sweet {ul}than{ul 0} the last.
12074 The grapes this year will be as sweet as the last.
12075 Learning to dive was not {ul}so{ul 0} tricky as she thought.
12076 Learning to dive was not as tricky as she thought.
12088 Conjunction Use
12104 After negative adverbs such as "never," "scarcely," and "hardly," the verb of a sentence should come before the subject.
12105 If the first part of your sentence is negative and the second part begins with "nor," the verb should come before the subject.
12106 Seldom {ul}the child has{ul 0} slept through the night.
12107 Seldom has the child slept through the night.
12108 I cannot live without chocolate, nor {ul}I do{ul 0} want to.
12109 I cannot live without chocolate, nor do I want to.
12120 Order of Words
12136 The form of the marked pronoun needs to reflect its function in your sentence.
12137 They wanted to hire {ul}I{ul 0}.
12138 They wanted to hire me.
12139 {ul}Them{ul 0} are the happiest boys on earth.
12140 They are the happiest boys on earth.
12141 {ul}Us{ul 0} campers went home when it snowed.
12142 We campers went home when it snowed.
12152 Pronoun Use
12168 You may be confusing the marked verb with a similar sounding verb. Some verbs do not take a direct object to complete their action, while other
12169 verbs must have a direct object.
12170 They {ul}apprised{ul 0} the proposal carefully.
12171 They appraised the proposal carefully.
12172 The medicine did not {ul}effect{ul 0} his mood.
12173 The medicine did not affect his mood.
12184 Verb Confusion
12200 If your sentence includes a statement about a question rather than a direct question, the subject should come before the verb.
12201 He asked the bus driver when {ul}would the next bus{ul 0} come.
12202 He asked the bus driver when the next bus would come.
12203 I wonder what {ul}did they serve{ul 0} for lunch.
12204 I wonder what they served for lunch.
12216 Order of Words
12232 If your sentence is a question, the verb should come before the subject.
12233 What {ul}she is{ul 0} doing?
12234 What is she doing?
12235 Where {ul}the dog sleeps{ul 0}?
12236 Where does the dog sleep?
12248 Order of Words
12264 If you are indicating two items, use "between" rather than "among."
12265 There has been fighting {ul}among{ul 0} both candidates.
12266 There has been fighting between both candidates.
12267 The rivalry {ul}among{ul 0} sister and brother continues.
12268 The rivalry between sister and brother continues.
12280 "Between" or "Among"
12296 The noun following "among" should be plural. Using "among" implies "among many (not one) things."
12297 The teacher distributed the crayons among the {ul}pupil{ul 0}.
12298 The teacher distributed the crayons among the pupils.
12299 She was the best choice among the {ul}candidate{ul 0}.
12300 She was the best choice among the candidates.
12312 Use of "Among"
12360 The noun immediately following "between" should be plural. Using "between" implies "between two things."
12361 The squirrels played between the {ul}oak tree{ul 0}.
12362 The squirrels played between the oak trees.
12363 Sitting between the {ul}student{ul 0} was entertaining.
12364 Sitting between the students was entertaining.
12376 Use of "Between"
12392 If the marked words are an incomplete thought, consider developing this thought into a complete sentence by adding a subject or a verb or combining this text with
12393 another sentence.
12394 {ul}Why{ul 0}?
12395 Why did it sink?
12396 {ul}Righteous dude{ul 0}!
12397 He's a righteous dude!
12408 Fragment
12424 Generally, statements end with a period.
12425 The train will arrive at {ul}noon?{ul 0}
12426 The train will arrive at noon.
12427 Will the train arrive at noon?
12428 Soccer is a popular sport in {ul}Japan?{ul 0}
12429 Soccer is a popular sport in Japan.
12430 Is soccer a popular sport in Japan?
12440 Question Mark Use
12456 The form of the marked pronoun needs to reflect its function in your sentence.
12457 The committee members, namely {ul}us{ul 0}, voted against it.
12458 The committee members, namely we, voted against it.
12459 {ul}Them{ul 0} are the happiest boys on earth.
12460 They are the happiest boys on earth.
12461 {ul}Us{ul 0} campers went home when it snowed.
12462 We campers went home when it snowed.
12472 Pronoun Use
12488 If these words are not essential to the meaning of your sentence, use "which" and separate the words with a comma.
12489 I have a great {ul}book which{ul 0} you can borrow for your vacation.
12490 I have a great book, which you can borrow for your vacation.
12491 I have a great book that you can borrow for your vacation.
12492 We want to buy the {ul}photo which{ul 0} Harry took.
12493 We want to buy the photo, which Harry took.
12494 We want to buy the photo that Harry took.
12504 "That" or "Which"
12520 The verb of a sentence must agree with the subject in number and in person.
12521 Neither the twins nor Sheila {ul}have{ul 0} a passport.
12522 Neither the twins nor Sheila has a passport.
12523 None of the candidates {ul}seem{ul 0} qualified to run.
12524  None of the candidates seems qualified to run.
12536 Subject-Verb Agreement
12552 If the marked pronoun refers back to a subject in your sentence, use the nominative case: "I," "you," "he," "she," "it," "we," or "they."
12553 The pronouns "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," or "them" should not follow the verbs "is" or "was".
12554 The donor was {ul}her{ul 0}.
12555 The donor was she.
12556 We suspected that it was {ul}her{ul 0}.
12557 We suspected that it was she.
12568 Pronoun Use
12584 Use "who" or "whoever" as a subject in a sentence. Use "whom" or "whomever" as an object or after a preposition.
12585 {ul}Who{ul 0} did you ask?
12586 Whom did you ask?
12587 {ul}Whoever{ul 0} you pick needs to have a strong voice.
12588 Whomever you pick needs to have a strong voice.
12600 "Who" or "Whom"
12616 You may have an unnecessary punctuation mark or a misplaced punctuation mark.
12617 We won the tournament{ul}!!!{ul 0}
12618 We won the tournament!
12619 What did you tell Billy{ul}???{ul 0}
12620 What did you tell Billy?
12632 Punctuation